Medical Research

With over 15,000 medical studies and publications to date, interest in the relationship between cannabinoids and the human body is nothing new. Over the past decade, an increase in public demand has subsequently triggered a surge in Cannabidiol (CBD) research. Whether you’re looking to address a particular ailment or simply hoping to improve your overall health, with such promising results, it’s obvious why CBD research has continued its steady increase over recent years.

[1.1] Yann LeStrat and Bernard Le Foll, “Obesity and Cannabis Use: Results From 2 Representative National Surveys,” American Journal of Epidemiology 174, no. 8 (2011): 929–933. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr200.

[1.2] L. Weiss, M. Zeira, S. Reich, M. Har-Noy, R. Mechoulam, S. Slavin, and R. Gallily, “Cannabidiol Lowers Incidence of Diabetes in Non-obese Diabetic Mice,” Autoimmunity 39, no. 2 (2006): 143–151.

[2.1] Sabine Steffens, Niels R. Veillard, Claire Arnaud, Graziano Pelli, Fabienne Burger, Christian Staub, Andreas Zimmer, Jean-Louis Frossard, and François Mach, “Low Dose Oral Cannabinoid Therapy Reduces Progression of Atherosclerosis in Mice,” Nature 434 (2005): 782–786.

[2.2] Sabine Steffens and Francois Mach, “Cannabinoid Receptors in Atherosclerosis,” Current Opinion in Lipidology 17, no. 5 (2006): 519–526. doi:10.1097/01.mol.0000245257.17764.b2.

[2.3] Ronen Durst, Haim Danenberg, Ruth Gallily, Raphael Mechoulam, Keren Meir, Etty Grad, Ronen Beeri, Thea Pugatsch, Elizabet Tarsish, and Chaim Lotan, “Cannabidiol, A Nonpsychoactive Cannabis Constituent, Protects against Myocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Injury,” American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology 293, no. 6 (2007): H3602–H3607. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00098.2007.

[2.4]  John C. Ashton and Paul F. Smith, “Cannabinoids and Cardiovascular Disease: The Outlook for Clinical Treatments,” Current Vascular Pharmacology 5, no. 3 (2007): 175–184. doi:10.2174/157016107781024109.

[3.1] Gabriella Aviello, Barbara Romano, Francesca Borrelli, Raffaele Capasso, Laura Gallo, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, and Angelo A. Izzo, “Chemopreventive Effect of the Non-psychotropic Phytocannabinoid Cannabidiol on Experimental Colon Cancer,” Journal of Molecular Medicine 90, no. 8 (2012): 925–934. doi:10.1007/s00109-011-0856-x.

[3.2] “NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 1-Trans-Delta(9)- Tetrahydrocannabinol (CAS No. 1972-08-3) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1Mice (Gavage Studies),” National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 446 (1996): 1–317.

[4.1] Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, “The Endocannabinoid System in Normal and Pathological Brain Ageing,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 367, no. 1607 (2012): 3326–3341. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0388.

[4.2] J. Fernández-Ruiz, O. Sagredo, M. R. Pazos, C. García, R. Pertwee, R. Mechoulam, and J. Martínez-Orgado, “Cannabidiol for Neurodegenerative Disorders: Important New Clinical Applications for This Phytocannabinoid?” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 75, no. 2 (May 25, 2012): 323–333.

[5.1] N. M. Kogan, E. Melamed, E. Wasserman, B. Raphael, A. Breuer, K. S. Stok, R. Sondergaard, A. V. Escudero, S. Baraghithy, M. Attar-Namdar, S. Friedlander-Barenboim, N. Mathavan, H. Isaksson, R. Mechoulam, R. Müller, A. Bajayo, Y. Gabet, and I. Bab, “Cannabidiol, A Major Nonpsychotropic Cannabis Constituent, Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts,” Journal of Mineral and Bone Research 30, no. 10 (October 2015): 1905–1913.

[6.1] A. J. Hampson, M. Grimaldi, J. Axelrod, and D. Wink, “Cannabidiol and (−)∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Are Neuroprotective Antioxidants,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, no. 14 (1998): 8268–8273.

[6.2] N. Dobrosi, B. I. Toth, G. Nagy, A. Dozsa, T. Geczy, L. Nagy, C. C. Zouboulis, R. Paus, L. Kovacs, and T. Biro, “Endocannabinoids Enhance Lipid Synthesis and Apoptosis of Human Sebocytes via Cannabinoid Receptor-2-Mediated Signaling,” The FASEB Journal 22, no. 10 (2008): 3685– 3695. doi:10.1096/fj.0604877.

[7.1] G. A. Grierson, “The Hemp Plant in Sanskrit and Hindi Literature,” Indian Antiquary (September 1894): 260–262.

[7.2] A. R. Schier, N. P. Ribeiro, A. C. Silva, J. E. Hallak, J. A. Crippa, A. E. Nardi, and A. W. Zuardi, “Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent, As an Anxiolytic Drug,” Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatri 34, suppl. 1 (2012): S104–S110. PubMed PMID: 22729452.

[7.3] R. J. Bluett, J. C. Gamble-George, D. J. Hermanson, N. D. Hartley, L. J. Marnett, and S. Patel, “Central Anandamide Defciency Predicts StressInduced Anxiety: Behavioral Reversal through Endocannabinoid Augmentation,” Translational Psychiatry 8, no. 4 (2014): e408. doi:10.1038/ tp.2014.53.

[7.4] A. C. Campos, Z. Ortega, J. Palazuelos, M. V. Fogaça, D. C. Aguiar, J. Díaz-Alonso, S. Ortega-Gutiérrez, H. Vázquez-Villa, F. A. Moreira, M. Guzmán, I. Galve-Roperh, and F. S. Guimarães, “The Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol on Chronically Stressed Mice Depends on Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 16, no. 6 (2013): 1407–1419. doi:10.1017/S1461145712001502.

[8.1] M. N. Hill, C. J. Hillard, F. R. Bambico, S. Patel, B. B. Gorzalka, and G. Gobbi, “The Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System for the Development of a Novel Class of Antidepressants,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 30, no. 9 (2009): 484–493. doi:10.1016/

[8.2] R. Linge, L. Jiménez-Sánchez, L. Campa, F. Pilar-Cuéllar, R. Vidal, A. Pazos, and A. Adell Díaz, “Cannabidiol Induces Rapid-Acting Antidepressant-Like Effects and Enhances Cortical 5-HT/Glutamate Neurotransmission: Role of 5-HT1A Receptors,” Neuropharmacology 103 (2016): 16. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.12.017.

[8.3] C. H. Ashton, P. B. Moore, P. Gallagher, and A. H. Young, “Cannabinoids in Bipolar Affective Disorder: A Review and Discussion of Their Therapeutic Potential,” Journal of Psychopharmacology 19, no. 3 (2005): 293–300.

[8.4] Abir T. El-Alfy, Kelly Ivey, Keisha Robinson, Safwat Ahmed, Mohamed Radwan, Desmond Slade, Ikhlas Khan, Mahmoud ElSohly, and Samir Ross, “Antidepressant-Like Effect of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa,” Journal of Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 95, no. 4 (June 2010): 434–442.

[8.5] A. R. de Mello Schier, N. P. de Oliveira Ribeiro, D. S. Coutinho, S. Machado, O. Arias-Carrión, J. A. Crippa, A. W. Zuardi, A. E. Nardi, and A. C. Silva, “Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa,” CNS Neurol Disorders – Drug Targets 13, no. 6 (2014): 953–960.

[9.1] J. Russell Reynolds, “On Some of the Therapeutical Uses of Indian Hemp,” in Archives of Medicine, vol. 2 (London, 1859), 154.

[9.2] R. Greco, V. Gasperi, M. Maccarrone, and C. Tassorelli, “The Endocannabinoid System and Migraine,” Experimental Neurololgy 224, no. 1 (2010): 85–91. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2010.03.029.

[9.3] E. B. Russo, “Cannabinoids in the Management of Diffcult to Treat Pain,” Journal of Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 4, no. 1 (2008): 245–259.

[9.4] S. Maione, F. Piscitelli, L. Gatta, D. Vita, L. De Petrocellis, E. Palazzo, V. de Novellis, and V. Di Marzo, “Non-psychoactive Cannabinoids Modulate the Descending Pathway of Antinociception in Anaesthetized Rats through Several Mechanisms of Action,” British Journal of Phramacology 162, no. 3 (2011): 584. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01063.x.

[10.1] D. W. Carley, S. Paviovic, M. Janelidze, and M. Radulovacki, “Functional Role for Cannabinoids in Respiratory Stability during Sleep,” Sleep 25, no. 4 (2002): 391–398. PubMed PMID: 12071539.

[10.2] E. Murillo-Rodríguez, D. Millán-Aldaco, M. Palomero-Rivero, R. Mechoulam, and R. Drucker-Colín, “The Nonpsychoactive Cannabis Constituent Cannabidiol Is a Wake-Inducing Agent,” Behavioral Neuroscience 122, no. 6 (2008): 1378–1382.

[10.3] E. B. Russo, G. W. Guy, and P. J. Robson, “Cannabis, Pain, and Sleep: Lessons from Therapeutic Clinical Trials of Sativex, a Cannabis-Based Medicine,” Chemistry and Biodiversity 4, no. 8 (2007): 1729–1743.

[10.4] M. H. N. Chagas, A. L. Eckeli, A. W. Zuardi, M. A. Pena-Pereira, M. A. Sobreira-Neto, E. T. Sobreira, M. R. Camilo, M. M. Bergamaschi, C. H. Schenck, J. E. C. Hallak, V. Tumas, and J. A. S. Crippa, “Cannabidiol Can Improve Complex Sleep-Related Behaviours Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: A Case Series,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 39 (2014): 564–566. doi:10.1111/jcpt.12179.